For centuries, tarot cards have fascinated people with their intricate designs and intriguing messages. While some may believe that tarot reading is reserved for those born with psychic abilities, the truth is that anyone can learn to read tarot. So, what is tarot and how does it work? Is being psychic necessary for its practice, or can intuition suffice? In this article, we will debunk common myths surrounding tarot reading and explore how you can develop and improve your skills to accurately read and interpret tarot cards for yourself and others.
What is Tarot?
Tarot reading has been around for centuries and still is shrouded in mystery and misconceptions. Some people believe it is a tool for predicting the future, while others think it is evil. However, the truth is far from these beliefs. Tarot is essentially a deck of 78 cards, each with its own meaning and symbolism. In this article, we will explore the history of tarot, how it works, and the common myths surrounding it. We will also discuss the difference between being psychic and intuitive and how to improve your tarot reading skills. If you want to learn more about the truth behind tarot reading, keep reading. And if you want to debunk the myth that tarot cards are evil, click here.
History of Tarot
The history of tarot cards is a subject of disagreement among scholars. Some believe that tarot originated in ancient Egypt or India, while others argue that it has roots in medieval Europe. The first known tarot deck was created in Italy in the 15th century by adding trump cards to the 4-suit playing deck.
However, the use of tarot cards for divinatory purposes didn’t become popular until centuries later, in the late 18th century. French occultist Jean-Baptiste Alliette, who went by the pseudonym “Etteilla,” was the first to develop a method of reading tarot cards for divination purposes. He published the first guide to tarot card readings in 1783. Etteilla believed that tarot cards held mystical insights into the past, present, and future, and could be used to answer questions about love, money, and relationships. This belief caught on, and the use of tarot cards for divination purposes spread throughout Europe and eventually to other parts of the world.
In the 20th century, tarot experienced a surge in popularity thanks to the writings of English occultist, Aleister Crowley. Crowley’s publication of The Book of Thoth in 1944, which was a guide to Crowley’s own tarot deck, helped to popularize tarot in the English-speaking world.
Today, tarot cards are widely used for divination, and have been the subject of numerous studies and debates. While some people believe that tarot cards can predict the future, others argue that they are simply a tool for self-reflection and self-discovery. Negative connotations surrounding tarot persist, with some still believing that tarot readings are related to black magic and the occult. However, tarot has also been embraced by those interested in using it for self-development and as a means of gaining insight into a particular situation.
How Tarot Works
Tarot works as a tool for tapping into one’s intuition and gaining insight into a situation. It helps individuals connect with their subconscious mind and receive guidance from their higher self or the universe. Every tarot card has a meaning, and the way it is interpreted depends on the individual’s intuition, the question being asked, and the context of the reading.
The concept of synchronicity is also central to how tarot works. Synchronicity is when events or situations seem to be connected in a meaningful way, even though there is no apparent causal relationship between them. Carl Jung, the famous Swiss psychologist, developed the concept of synchronicity and believed that it was related to the collective unconscious, a shared pool of knowledge and information that all humans have access to.
When a person shuffles the tarot deck and selects cards, the cards that come up are not just random but are connected in a meaningful way to the person’s question and situation. This connection is a product of synchronicity, and it allows the tarot reader to interpret the cards in a way that is relevant to the individual being read.
Another important aspect of how tarot works is the power of intention and energy. When a person seeks a tarot reading, they are putting out an intention to receive guidance or insight into a situation. The tarot reader, too, is putting out an intention to provide helpful guidance to the person seeking the reading. Additionally, the energy of the individual and the reader can impact the reading. It is essential to create a peaceful and positive environment before conducting a tarot reading.
It is important to note that tarot is not a method for predicting the future. Rather, it is a tool for gaining insight and guidance on a particular situation or question. While some cards may seem ominous, such as the Death card, they do not predict literal death, instead, they represent a transformation or change in the near future.
Tarot works by tapping into one’s intuition, embracing synchronicity, and focusing on the energy and intentions of both the reader and the individual seeking guidance. Through tarot readings, individuals can gain a better understanding of their subconscious mind, receive insight into their situation, and make more informed decisions about their life.
Psychic vs Intuitive
As you learn more about tarot, you may hear the terms “psychic” and “intuitive” used interchangeably. Many people assume that psychic abilities, such as clairvoyance or telepathy, are necessary to read tarot cards accurately. However, this is a common misconception. In truth, intuition is the key to successful tarot reading. Let’s explore the difference between psychic abilities and intuition, and how each plays a role in reading tarot.
The difference between a psychic and an intuitive is an important aspect of understanding tarot reading. A psychic is someone who claims to have supernatural abilities and can see and predict future events that are beyond the normal senses. In contrast, an intuitive relies on their natural ability to understand things instinctively, without the need for any supernatural powers or abilities.
When it comes to tarot reading, psychics may use their supernatural abilities to interpret the cards and make future predictions. However, an intuitive tarot reader relies solely on their intuition and understanding of the meaning of each card. They use their own understanding of the cards and their symbolism to provide insight and guidance.
It’s important to note that being psychic is not a requirement to become a skilled tarot reader. Many successful tarot readers are intuitive, rather than psychic. In fact, learning to develop your own intuition is a key part of becoming a skilled tarot reader.
If you’re interested in learning more about the difference between being psychic and intuitive, there are plenty of resources available online. One interesting article to check out is “Tarot Cards That Predict Death: Fact or Fiction?“. This article explores some of the myths around tarot reading and psychic abilities, which can help clarify the differences between the two.
How Intuition Helps
Intuition is an innate skill that every person possesses. It’s the ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious reasoning. In Tarot reading, intuition is used to interpret the cards and provide insight into a person’s life. Although some people believe that psychic abilities are necessary for Tarot reading, intuition alone can be just as powerful.
Intuition allows the reader to connect with the querent and the cards on a deeper level. It helps the reader tap into their subconscious mind and trust their instincts. It’s important to note that intuition doesn’t necessarily mean making assumptions or guesses. Rather, it’s a feeling or sense that comes from within, often accompanied by an image, symbol or phrase.
One way to develop your intuition is through meditation and reflection. By taking time to quiet your mind and focus on your inner thoughts and feelings, you can become more in tune with your intuitive abilities. Another way to develop your intuition is through practicing with others. By reading for friends or family, you can develop the confidence to trust your instincts and interpret the cards more accurately.
Ultimately, intuition plays a crucial role in Tarot reading. It helps the reader connect with the querent and provide insightful, meaningful readings. While some people may choose to rely on psychic abilities, intuition is a skill that can be developed and strengthened over time with practice and reflection.
To learn more about how Tarot readings work with free will, check out our article on accurate Tarot readings and free will. Additionally, debunk the myth that only positive cards lead to positive outcomes in our article on positive cards and positive outcomes. If you’re interested in getting an affordable Tarot reading, check out our article on affordable Tarot readings.
Common Myths About Tarot Reading
There are so many misconceptions surrounding Tarot reading that it can be difficult to separate fact from fiction. Some of these myths may have been perpetuated by Hollywood movies or misguided beliefs, while others may simply be misunderstandings. Nonetheless, it’s important to debunk these myths in order to fully understand what Tarot reading is about and how it can be helpful in your life. So, let’s bust some of these commonly held myths once and for all.
You Need to be Psychic
There is a common myth surrounding Tarot reading that suggests one needs to possess psychic abilities to be able to read the cards. This is not true, and it can be a discouraging factor for those who are interested in learning this art of divination. Here are some reasons why you don’t need to be psychic to read Tarot:
- Tarot cards are a tool: The Tarot cards are simply a tool to access one’s intuition and gain insights into various situations. They provide a visual representation of the energies and influences of the past, present, and future. Anyone can learn to read the cards, as long as they are willing to put in the time and effort to understand their meanings.
- Intuitive abilities: While being psychic may enhance one’s ability to connect with the cards and their meanings, it is not mandatory. Intuition is a natural skill that everyone has to some extent. It’s simply a matter of honing and developing this skill through practice.
- Empathy: Empathy is the ability to sense and understand other people’s emotions and feelings. It is a crucial skill to have while reading Tarot cards, as it allows the reader to identify and relate to the person they are reading for. Empathy can be developed and learned through various techniques, such as meditation and practicing active listening skills.
- Logic and interpretation: Tarot reading is not just about blindly interpreting the cards. It requires a certain degree of logic and interpretation skills to put the various meanings together into a cohesive narrative. The reader must be able to analyze the cards and their placement in the spread to gain deeper insights into the situation at hand.
As you can see, being psychic is not a prerequisite for Tarot reading. It is a skill that anyone can learn and develop with time and practice. Don’t let this myth discourage you from exploring this fascinating field of divination.
Tarot is Evil
There is a common misconception that tarot is associated with evil or dark forces. However, this couldn’t be further from the truth. Here are a few reasons why tarot is not evil:
- Tarot does not have any inherent power: The power of tarot lies within the interpretations and insights of the reader. The cards themselves are simply tools to help guide the reader’s intuition.
- Tarot is not associated with any particular religion or belief system: Anyone can use tarot, regardless of their religious or spiritual beliefs. Tarot can be seen as a tool for self-reflection and personal growth, rather than a means of practicing any particular belief system.
- Tarot readings are not inherently negative: While some readings may touch on difficult topics or bring up uncomfortable emotions, the ultimate goal of a tarot reading is to gain insight, clarity and guidance. It is up to the reader to interpret the cards in a positive and constructive way, rather than spreading fear or negativity.
It’s important to remember that tarot is simply a tool and, like any tool, it can be used for positive or negative purposes. It is up to the reader to use tarot in an ethical and responsible way, respecting the beliefs and feelings of those they are reading for. By doing so, tarot can be a powerful tool for personal growth and understanding, rather than something to be feared or demonized.
Tarot Predicts the Future
Some people believe that the main purpose of tarot cards is to predict the future. However, this is a common misconception and far from the truth. In fact, tarot readings focus more on the present situation and the different possible outcomes rather than the future.
|Tarot cards can foretell the future with 100% accuracy||Tarot cards cannot predict the future with complete accuracy as the future is not fixed and can change with the actions we take in the present.|
|Tarot cards are a crystal ball that show definite outcomes||Tarot cards show a range of possibilities and outcomes based on the current situation, feelings, and actions of the person seeking the reading. The future is not set in stone, and the cards offer insight into different paths or options that may be available.|
|Tarot cards reveal major life events and catastrophes before they happen||Tarot cards offer insight into the current situation and can guide someone in making informed decisions. They do not predict specific major life events like death or illness, and instead focus on the energy and emotions surrounding the situation at hand.|
It is important to approach a tarot reading with an open mind and understanding that the cards are not a crystal ball that can predict the future with certainty. Instead, the cards offer guidance and insight into the current situation, allowing individuals to make informed decisions that can shape their future.
Developing Your Skills
As you start your journey in the world of tarot, you may feel overwhelmed and uncertain about how to improve your skills. However, the key to developing your tarot reading abilities is to start with the basics and give yourself time to grow. Learning the cards is essential, but it’s also essential to engage in meditation and reflection practices to connect with your intuition. Finally, you need to begin practicing with others to become more confident in your skills. In this section, we’ll explore these skills in more detail and give you the tools you need to become a better reader.
Learning the Cards
One important aspect of developing your Tarot reading skills is learning the cards. This includes familiarizing yourself with the different images, symbols, and meanings associated with each card in the deck. Here are some steps you can take to effectively learn the cards:
- Get a Tarot deck: There are many different types of Tarot decks to choose from, so it’s important to find one that resonates with you. Look for a deck that speaks to your personal interests or has images that you find particularly compelling.
- Study the meanings: Each card in the deck has a specific meaning or set of meanings associated with it. Take time to study and memorize these meanings, either by using a guidebook or looking up resources online.
- Practice daily pulls: One effective way to learn the cards is by regularly pulling a card from the deck and reflecting on its meaning. Write down your thoughts and interpretations to help solidify your understanding.
- Use flashcards: Flashcards can be a helpful study tool when learning the meanings of each card. Write the name of the card on one side of the card and the meaning on the other side, and quiz yourself regularly.
- Explore symbolism: Tarot cards are rich with symbolism, and understanding the various symbols can provide deeper insights into the meaning behind each card. Take time to explore the symbols on each card and research their significance.
By taking the time to learn the cards and their meanings, you will be better equipped to provide insightful and accurate readings for yourself and others.
Meditation and Reflection
When it comes to improving your skills as a tarot reader, meditation and reflection can be extremely helpful. Taking time to meditate and reflect before, during, and after your readings can help you connect with your intuition and gain a deeper understanding of the messages you are receiving.
Here are some tips for incorporating meditation and reflection into your tarot practice:
- Start with a clear mind: Before beginning a reading, take a few moments to focus your mind and clear any distracting thoughts. This can help you connect more deeply with the cards and the messages they hold.
- Reflect on the cards: After pulling a card, take a few moments to reflect on its meaning. What stands out to you? What emotions and themes come up?
- Journal your thoughts: Writing down your reflections and insights can help you process and remember what you’ve learned. Consider keeping a tarot journal to track your progress and insights.
- Meditate on specific questions: If you have a specific question or issue you’re working through, take time to meditate on it before and after your reading. This can help you connect with your intuition and gain deeper insights into the situation.
- Practice mindfulness: During your readings, try to stay present and focused on the present moment. Avoid getting too caught up in the past or future, as this can cloud your intuition and influence your interpretations.
By incorporating meditation and reflection into your tarot practice, you can gain a deeper understanding of the cards and the messages they hold. Plus, you’ll strengthen your intuition and build a stronger connection with yourself and the world around you.
Practicing with Others
One effective way to improve your Tarot reading skills is by practicing with others. This approach can help you to gain confidence, sharpen your intuition, and identify areas in which you need improvement. if you’re not sure where to start, consider the following steps:
Step 1: Find a willing participant: Look for someone who is open to receiving a Tarot reading, such as a friend or family member who may be intrigued by the idea.
Step 2: Choose a comfortable environment – Look for a quiet and private space where you and your practice partner can feel at ease.
Step 3: Set the intention – Before you start your practice reading, it’s important to set your intention. This can be as simple as stating that you want to provide helpful and supportive guidance and creating a positive and welcoming energy around the reading.
Step 4: Shuffle and lay out the cards – Shuffle the deck thoroughly, and then ask the person you’re reading for to shuffle the cards as well. Once the deck is well-shuffled, lay the cards out in the desired spread.
Step 5: Begin the reading – Take a deep breath and focus on the cards in front of you. Begin to interpret the meaning of each card with the help of your intuition and any knowledge of the card’s symbolism that you have. Talk through your interpretation with your practice partner and ask them for feedback.
Step 6: Reflect and learn – After each practice reading, take some time to reflect on what went well and what you could improve on. Consider taking notes to refer back to later.
By practicing with others, you’ll be able to grow your confidence and comfort level in reading the Tarot, which will boost both the accuracy and impact of your readings.
Improving Your Readings
Now that you have gained a basic understanding of tarot reading and have begun to develop your skills as an intuitive reader, it’s time to take your readings to the next level. Whether you’re reading for yourself or for others, there are always ways to improve and enhance your readings. By incorporating certain techniques and strategies, you can become a more insightful and accurate tarot reader. In this section, we will explore some tips and tricks for improving your readings, from asking the right questions to recognizing patterns in the cards. So let’s dive in and discover how you can take your tarot readings to the next level.
Asking the Right Questions
When it comes to tarot reading, asking the right questions is essential for gaining meaningful insights. Here are some tips for crafting effective questions:
- Be specific: Avoid asking vague questions that could have multiple interpretations. Instead, focus on a particular aspect of your life or situation that you want guidance on.
- Avoid yes/no questions: Closed-ended questions don’t give the tarot cards enough room to provide in-depth answers. Instead, ask open-ended questions that invite the cards to offer more detail.
- Focus on yourself: It’s easy to get caught up in asking questions about other people or external circumstances. However, tarot is most effective when you focus on your own thoughts, feelings, and actions.
- Avoid asking for specific outcomes: Tarot is not a tool for predicting the future with 100% accuracy. Instead, ask questions that help you understand how you can influence the outcome or make the most of the situation.
- Think about the present moment: Instead of focusing too much on the past or future, frame your questions in terms of what you can do now to improve your situation or work through challenges.
- Consider the cards: When asking a question, keep the tarot cards in mind. Certain cards may be more relevant to certain types of questions, so make sure you’re familiar with the meanings of each card and how they may apply to your situation.
By following these tips and crafting thoughtful, specific questions, you’ll be able to get more out of your tarot readings and gain deeper insights into your life and circumstances.
Staying Objective while reading Tarot is crucial in obtaining an accurate and unbiased interpretation. It is important to note that you are a conduit for the messages coming through the cards, rather than adding your own biases or judgements into the reading. To help stay objective, consider the following:
|Focus on the cards||Avoid making assumptions or drawing conclusions based on what you already know about the person you’re reading for. Instead, focus on the symbols, images, and messages presented in the cards.|
|Acknowledge your biases||No matter how hard we try, our personal beliefs and experiences can influence our interpretations. Be aware of your own biases and take time to reflect on how they may be affecting your reading.|
|Use language carefully||Avoid using language that is judgmental or that assumes a particular outcome. Use neutral, objective terms and leave room for interpretation by your client.|
|Remain open-minded||Allow the reading to unfold without expectations or assumptions. Take note of everything that appears in the cards and allow the messages to come through naturally, without forcing them into a preconceived narrative.|
|Take breaks||It can be easy to become emotionally invested in a reading, especially if it is for someone you know well. Take breaks between readings, clear your mind and remain grounded to avoid transferring your own emotions into the reading.|
By staying objective, you not only ensure an accurate interpretation but also show respect for the person you’re reading for by allowing them to interpret the messages in a way that is meaningful to them. Remember that Tarot is a tool for personal growth and self-reflection, and by remaining objective and focused on discovering the truth, you can offer invaluable insight to those seeking guidance.
One of the key skills in becoming an effective Tarot reader is the ability to recognize patterns. This involves paying attention to the combination of cards that appear in a reading and identifying any recurring themes or messages that are present.
To do this, it can be helpful to create a table where you record the cards that come up in each reading. This will allow you to look for patterns over time and track any common themes that emerge.
For example, if you notice that the same card appears frequently in your readings, take note of what it represents and how it might relate to the other cards in the spread. This can give you valuable insights into the recurring energies or challenges that a person may be facing in their life.
Similarly, you may notice patterns in the positions of the cards, such as a tendency for certain cards to appear in specific positions or in relation to particular topics. This can help you to gain deeper insights into the person’s situation and offer targeted guidance based on the cards that appear.
Recognizing patterns is an essential skill for any Tarot reader, as it allows you to gain a deeper understanding of the cards and the insights that they offer. By developing this skill, you can become a more effective reader and offer valuable guidance and support to those seeking answers through the Tarot.
Reading Tarot for Others
When it comes to using tarot as a tool for guidance and self-exploration, many individuals eventually find themselves wanting to share this powerful practice with others. However, reading tarot for others requires a different set of skills and considerations. It is not simply a matter of shuffling the cards and interpreting the symbols; rather, it involves creating a safe and ethical space, building trust and boundaries, and continuously improving one’s abilities. In this section, we will explore the key elements to keep in mind when reading tarot for others, so you can provide meaningful and transformative readings for your clients while promoting respect, integrity, and responsibility in your practice.
When it comes to reading Tarot for others, setting boundaries is essential. Here are a few key points to keep in mind:
- Time limits: It’s important to establish how long the reading will last. Some readers choose to offer different lengths of readings, such as a 15-minute option or a 45-minute option. Whatever the case, make sure the person receiving the reading knows how long they should expect it to last.
- Scope of the reading: Be clear about what types of questions the person can ask. For example, you might choose not to answer questions about health or legal issues. It’s also important to clarify that the reading is for entertainment purposes only and should not be taken as medical or legal advice.
- Confidentiality: Make it clear that you will not share any information about the reading with anyone else. If the person receiving the reading asks for a recording or written summary of the reading, it’s up to you to decide whether or not you feel comfortable providing that.
- Payment: Be clear about your payment expectations, including how much the reading costs and how the person can pay you (e.g. cash, credit card, PayPal).
- Conduct: Establish guidelines for how you expect the person receiving the reading to behave. For example, you might ask that they refrain from interrupting you or from asking the same question multiple times.
By communicating these boundaries clearly and upfront, you can ensure that both you and the person receiving the reading have a positive experience.
The Importance of Consent
When reading tarot for others, it is essential to obtain their consent beforehand. Not everyone is comfortable with having their fortunes told or receiving guidance through the cards. Without consent, the reading can be invasive and potentially harmful to the person’s mental and emotional well-being.
Here are some reasons why obtaining consent is important:
- Respect for Boundaries: By obtaining consent, you respect the boundaries of the person you are reading for. They are trusting you with their personal information and emotional state, so it is crucial to ensure they are comfortable and willing to participate in the experience.
- Empowerment: Consent gives the person agency over the reading. They can choose the questions they want to ask and the cards they want to draw, giving them a sense of control and autonomy throughout the process.
- Builds Trust: When the person trusts you enough to give consent, it fosters a trusting and safe environment for the reading. They may be more open and honest with their questions, leading to a more insightful and accurate reading.
- Avoid Misinterpretation: Tarot readings can be personal and emotional. Without consent, there is a likelihood of misinterpreting their reactions or overstepping boundaries. With consent, the person is more likely to be receptive to the reading and less likely to misinterpret the messages conveyed through the cards.
In short, obtaining consent is critical to maintain the dignity and autonomy of the person you are reading for. Ensure they are comfortable and willing to participate in the experience to create a positive and empowering reading.
Ethics are of utmost importance when it comes to tarot reading, as it involves seeking insights about a person’s life. Tarot readers should follow certain ethical guidelines that ensure that the process is respectful and helpful to the seeker. The following table highlights some of the ethical considerations that should be kept in mind while reading tarot for others.
|Confidentiality||The privacy of the seeker must be maintained, and their personal information should not be discussed with others without their consent.|
|Objectivity||Readers should strive to remain neutral and objective during readings. Personal biases or prejudices should not influence the interpretation of the cards.|
|Consent||Seekers should be informed about the process and what to expect from the reading. They should also be given the option to decline a reading or ask for clarification.|
|Respect||The seeker should be treated with respect and dignity throughout the process. The reader should avoid making judgments or assumptions about the seeker based on the cards.|
|Empowerment||The reader should empower the seeker to take responsibility for their own life and decisions. The reading should not be used as a means of control or manipulation.|
When reading tarot for others, it is important for the reader to be professional, ethical and respectful. Tarot readings can be a powerful tool for personal growth and introspection, and the reader should aim to provide a safe and supportive environment for the seeker. By following ethical guidelines, the reader can ensure that the seeker receives a valuable and meaningful reading.
In conclusion, the practice of tarot reading is not limited to psychics, but can be accessible to anyone with an interest in developing their intuition and understanding of the symbolism in the cards. Through a combination of studying the history and meanings of the cards, meditating and reflecting on their own intuition, and practicing with others, individuals can improve their skills and become confident in their ability to read tarot.
It is important to recognize and dispel commonly held myths about tarot, such as the belief that one needs to be psychic in order to read tarot, or that tarot is evil and predicts the future. Instead, tarot can be a useful tool for inner reflection and personal growth, and should always be approached with intention and ethical considerations when reading for others.
When reading tarot for others, it is crucial to establish clear boundaries and obtain consent, and to always prioritize ethical considerations in interpreting the cards. By doing so, both the reader and recipient can benefit from the insights gained through the practice of tarot reading.
Overall, reading tarot requires a willingness to learn, practice, and approach the cards with respect and humility. Through this process, individuals can deepen their understanding of themselves and others, and tap into their innate intuition and wisdom.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can anyone learn to read tarot?
Yes, anyone can learn to read tarot with practice and dedication.
Do I need to be psychic to read tarot?
No, being intuitive is more important than being psychic when it comes to tarot reading.
Can tarot predict the future?
No, tarot cannot predict the future as it is based on the present energy and influences surrounding the question being asked.
Is tarot evil or satanic?
No, tarot is not evil or satanic. It is simply a tool for self-discovery and gaining insight.
How many cards are in a tarot deck?
A standard tarot deck has 78 cards.
Can tarot reading be done online or over the phone?
Yes, tarot reading can be done remotely over the phone or online, but it is important to find a reputable and experienced reader.
How do I choose a tarot deck?
Choose a tarot deck that speaks to you on a personal level and that resonates with your intuition.
Is it necessary to memorize the meaning of all tarot cards?
No, it is not necessary to memorize each card’s meaning. It is important to understand the symbolism and energy of each card and how they interact with each other.
Can tarot reading be used in place of therapy?
No, tarot reading should not be used as a replacement for therapy. It can be a complementary tool, but professional help should always be sought if needed.
Is it ethical to charge money for tarot reading services?
Yes, it is ethical to charge money for tarot reading services as it is a skill that requires time, effort, and experience.